The process of insurance has been evolved to safeguard the interests of people from uncertainty by providing certainty of payment at a given contingency. The insurance principle comes to be more and more used and useful in modern affairs. Not only does it serve the ends of individuals, or of special groups of individuals, it tends to pervade and to transform our modern social order, too. The role and importance of insurance, here, has been discussed in three phases: 1) uses to individual 2) uses to a special group of individuals ie business or industry and 3) uses to the society.
USES TO AN INDIVIDUAL
1. Insurance provides security and safety
The insurance provides safety and security against the loss on a particular event. In case of life insurance payment is made when death occurs or the term of insurance is expired. The loss to the family at a premature death and payment in old age are adequately provided by insurance. In other words, security against premature death and old age sufferings are provided by life insurance. Similarly, the property of insured is secured against loss on a fire in fire insurance. In other insurance, too, this security is provided against the loss at fire, against the loss at damage, destruction or disappearance of property, goods, furniture and machines, etc.
2. Insurance affords peace of mind
The security wish is the prime motivating factor. This is the wish which tends to stimulate to more work, if this wish is unsatisfied, it will create a tension which manifests itself to the individual in the form of an unpleasant reaction causing reduction in work. The security banishes fear and uncertainty, fire, windstorm, automobile accident, damage and death are almost beyond the control of human agency and in occurrence of any of these events may frustrate or weaken the human mind. By means of insurance,however, much of the uncertainty that centres about the wish for security and its attainment may be eliminated.
3. Insurance protects mortgaged property
At the death of the owner of the mortgaged property, the property is taken over by the lender of money and the family will be deprived of the uses of the property. On the otherhand, the mortgage wishes to get the property insured because at the damange or destruction of the property he will lose his right to get the loan repayed. The insurance will provide adequate amount to the dependents at the early death of the property-owner to pay off the unpaid loans. Similarly, the mortgagee gets adequate amount at the destruction of the property.
4. Insurance eliminates dependency
At the death of the husband or father, the destruction of family need no elaboration. Similarly, at destruction of property and goods, the family would suffer a lot . It brings reduced standards of living and the suffering may go to any extent of begging from the relatives, neighbours or friends. The economic independence of the family is reduced or , sometimes, lost totally. What can be more pitiable condition than this that the wife and children are looking others more benevolent than the husband and father, in absense of protection against such dependency. The insurance is here to assist them and provides adequate amount at the time of sufferings.
5. Life insurance encourages saving
The elements of protection and investment are present only in case of life insurance. In property insurance, only protection element exists. In most of the life policies elements of saving predominates. These policies combine the programs of insurance and savings. The saving with insurance has certain extra advantages-i) systematic saving is possible because regular premiums are required to be compulsorily paid. The saving with a bank is voluntary and one can easily omit a month or two and then abandon the program entirely. ii) in insurance the deposited premium cannot be withdrawn easily before the expiry of the term of the policy. As contrast to this, the saving which can be withdrawn at any moment will finish within no time. iii) the insurance will pay the policy-money irrespective of the premium deposited while in case of bank-deposit, only the deposited amount along with the interest is paid. The insurance, thus, provides the wished amount of insurance and the bank provides only the deposited amount. iv) the compulsion or force to premium in insurance is so high that if the policy- holder fails to pay premiums within the days of grace, he subjects his policy to lapsation and may get back only a very nominal portion of the total premiums paid on the policy. For the preservation of the policy, he has to try his level best to pay the premium. After a certain period, it would be a part of necessary expenditure of the insured. In absense of such forceful compulsion elsewhere life insurance is the best media of saving.
6. life insurance provides profitable investment
Individuals unwilling or unable to handle their own funds have been pleased to find an outlet for their investment in life insurance policies. Endowment policies, multipurpose policies, deferred annuities are certain better form of investment. The elements of investment ie regular saving, capital formation, and return of the capital alongwith certain additional return are perfectly observed in life insurance. In india the insurance policies carry a special exemption from income-tax, wealth tax, gift tax and estate duty. An individual from his own capacity cannot invest regularly with enough of security and profitability. The life insurance fulfills all these requiremens with a lower cost. The beneficiary of the policy-holder can get a regular income from the life-insurer, if the insured amount is left with him.
7. life insurance fulfills the needs of a person
The needs of a person are divided into a) family needs,b) old-age needs,c) re-adjustment needs,d) special needs,e) the clean-up needs.
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